Space weather is mainly controlled by the strong magnetic storms and particle storms which are caused by the enhanced fluxes of protons and ions.
These accelerated plasmas are known as solar energetic particles (SEPs). The generation of SEP is mainly due to two phenomenon, impulsive SEP events
caused by magnetic reconnection manifested as solar flares, and gradual SEP events accelerated by strong shocks associated with coronal mass ejections. JU scientists have shown that their method of employing so-called instantaneous speed offers better correlation than the average speed.
In addition, they observed poor correlation between fluxes of SEPs and flares, which support the hypothesis that energetic particles observed in the
considered energy range are predominantly accelerated by CME shock.